Startup Keys

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Modern (Intel) Macs

NOTE: Macs with a firmware password will not allow booting from a different volume without password. They will not PRAM.

Macs upgraded to macOS 10.12.4 or later:

  • Option + Command + R: Start up from latest internet recovery compatible with your Mac.
  • Shift + Option + Command + R: Start up from internet recovery closest to original macOS that came with your Mac.

Macs not upgraded to macOS 10.12.4 or later:

  • Option + Command + R: Start up from internet recovery closest to original macOS that came with your Mac.
  • Option: Use the start up manager. Newer Macs allow WiFi booting and selection of NetBoot volumes from this screen.
  • Option + Command + P + R: Reset NVRAM/PRAM. This will reset screen brightness, volume, default boot drive to first available storage device (usually internal HDD/SSD), Bluetooth/WiFi settings, Find My [Mac] token, display resolution, and Gpu selection.
  • Shift: Start up in safe mode.
  • D: Start up the build in Apple Hardware Test (AHT).
  • Option + D: Start up the internet Apple Hardware Test (AHT).
  • N: Start up from the last or default NetBoot volume.
  • Option + N: Start up from the default NetBoot volume.
  • Command + S: Start up in single user mode.
  • T: Start up in target disk mode.
  • Command + V: Start up in verbose mode.
  • Eject, F12, or pointer button: Eject removable devices.
  • C: Boot from optical drive.